1 Baba wants to buy some fresh food, but the seller asks Baba for an ID and he gets really mad and takes it personally. Baba is also having a hard time settling in, considering he lived his whole life in another country with a different culture. This is probably the case with most people when trying to settle in a new country. You meet so many rules and norms you have not seen before. Like if I were to move to China, I would easily forget handshaking is rude and bowing is essential, also eye contact is frowned upon in some places. It is hard to adapt to the changes you have never come across.
2 There is always a way to forget the past and make up for your mistakes. I think if you really are friends you can reconcile. And I truly believe this is important, for when you have found your best friend, soul friend even. Doing something stupid may make you hate him, but if you really are good friends you can forget what happened easily and find a way to forgive.
3 Cheating is also considered stealing, since you are stealing a person almost. There are exceptions to this rule, I agree stealing can be put together with other sins. But beating someone up is also a sin. If you kill him sure, you steal a life but if you beat him up, what exactly do you steal? You can always speak your way around this if you are arguing. Like if you beat someone up you steal their right to look and feel good, but it is not really considered theft.
4 Assef did a really really terrible thing to Hassan. By raping someone you steal their virginity, steal their life even. Some say raping is worse than killing, and in some sense that is true. Raping can destroy a life completely, and people change entirely after such an encounter.
5 I might be wrong, but Assef kind of reminds me of Adolf Hitler. Assef wants to only have pashtuns in Afghanistan, not those «Flat-nose», people. So in a way Assef is Hitler and wants to get rid of the jews completely, because they dirty their religion, their country.
6 Baba cares mostly for himself and his son Amir. Which is why he treats the others like strangers almost. I personally mean family is family, and friends are friends. You cannot pick whoever you want and get rid of the others. Just because your other brother is stupid or handicapped, does not mean you can just throw him under the bus to make your life easier for you.