In 1988 Morocco and the Polisario Front made the Settlement Plan. The Polisario Front is a national liberation movement aiming to end Moroccan presence in Western Sahara. The settlement plan was an agreement between the two parties to organize a referendum of self-determination for the people in the Western Sahara. But sadly the referendum never took place, the UN therefore made MINURSO, the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara. MINURSO were established in 1991 under the United Nations Security Council. MINURSO were going to help to implement the referendum and it was supposed to be done in January 1992. The ceasefire between them are
‘’No matter how close a rapprochement Morocco achieves with Russia, it cannot match the value of Russia’s military deals with Algeria. According to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, Algeria was the third-largest customer for Russian arms between 2007 and 2016, and is now Africa’s largest importer of Russia weapons, absorbing 46% of Russia’s exports to the continent.’’
Amid continued diplomatic efforts to resolve the conflict, a UN peacekeeping mission, the United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara (MINURSO), has remained on the ground monitoring the cease fire and providing a stabilizing presence.
The UN does not recognize Moroccan claims, as the Western Sahara remains in its list of Non-Self-Governing Territories since 1963. … The African Union (formerly the OAU) has given the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic full recognition, and accepted it as a member state (which has led Morocco to leave the union.).
Since the adoption of the UN settlement plan in 1991, the UN has focused for more than a decade on achieving a solution to the territorial question, which is ‘’ who is Sahrawi and who should be eligible to vote in a referendum on self-determination?’’, which pits Morocco the Algerian-backed Polisario front, by means of a referendum with the option of independence among the envisaged outcomes.
Since 2000, the United Nations has been attempting to find a solution balancing the conflict’s two main buzzwords: sovereignty and self-determination. The main problem has been the Security Council’s lack of will rather than any paucity of inventive solutions. For seven years, the conflict tested the imagination and patience of James Baker, who served as the UN secretary-general’s personal envoy to Western Sahara from 1997 to 2004. Baker lost Morocco’s confidence in January 2003 when he proposed a solution that allowed for a referendum with the choices of integration, autonomy or independence.